Congress - Conferences

 

 

 

Don Bersoff
APA & Drexel University College of Law – USA
Title: Protecting Potential Victims of Violent Patients While Protecting Confidentiality:  The Influence of Ethics and Culture

Abstract

ProsenjitPoddar, an outpatient in a college counseling center, killed TataniaTarasoff.  Her parents sued his therapists for failing to warn their daughter of the violent threats made by Poddar to the therapists.  A state supreme court held that psychotherapists have a duty to protect intended victims if their patients’ threats present a serious danger of violence.  A subsequent statute passed by the state’s legislature granted immunity from lawsuits if the therapist discharged the duty by communicating the threat to the potential victim and the police.  I argue that this case, Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, is bad law, bad social science, and bad social policy.  I explore alternatives to breaching confidentiality to warn that are more consistent with prima facie ethical obligations but protect the potential victim.  Finally, I discuss the import of cultural aspects of this case that if considered might have prevented Ms.Tarasoff’s death.

 

 

Erica Burman
Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) – England
Title: Gender and Childhood Knowledge in Psychology: malestream, marginalisation or mainstream

Abstract

This paper takes up methodological and epistemological questions about the gendering of knowledge to consider the range of strategies adopted in developmental psychological and educational research to address these. Early feminist research highlighted the various ways mainstream models were culturally masculine and western. But feminist theory has also shown how substituting a conception of the child as gender free for the child as boy, or even the child as girl, are all inadequate. Drawing on contemporary intersectionality and Queer theory, I draw on historical and contemporary cultural examples to illustrate how current models of the child as neoliberal subject indicate how discourses of gender and childhood work to mask, as well as reveal, prevailing economic considerations. Far from confirming its irrelevance, therefore, feminist analysis turns out to be vital for us all.

 

 

Feggy Ostrosky
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de  Mexico – Mexico
Violencia, Emociones y Cerebro

Abstract

What drives humans to harm other family members or strangers? How can these impulses and actions prevented or controlled? Violent behavior is alarmingly common in our society and is considered a public health problem. They come from domestic abuse to homicide and crime in the streets. Fear of crime has a serious impact on the quality of our life, and determines all our activities: where are we going, how long we stay there, the type of security you try to get, how we dress, what time to leave home and even where and when we work. In an effort to combat this trend, have increased the number of investigations aimed at understanding aggression and violence and its causes in order to develop effective treatments. In this lecture we review theories on the neurobiological basis of aggression and violence. We present neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies performed on serial murderers and serial killers Mexico City.

 

 

Hugo Klappenbach
Universidad Nacional de San Luis, CONICET – Argentina
Title: Aportes de la historia de la psicología a la integración y diversidad teórica y aplicada en psicologia

Abstract

The paper begins with the historical analysis of the early period of theoretical differentiation in the field of psychology.To this end, the first declaration of crisis in psychology at the end of 19 th Century is analyzed. Then, the theoretical debate during the so called stage of schools in psychology will be reconstructed. It alsowill be revisitedthe classic studiesthat analyzed the various schools, systems and directions in Psychology after 1925.Finally, we critically discuss some of the proposals for the integration of psychological tendencies, among them, the Ruben Ardila experimenta lsynthesis of behaviorand the unified psychology from Robert and Elena Grigorenkoat the beginning of XXI Century.

 

 

Ian Parker
Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) – England
Title: Critical Knowledge and Practice: Revolutions in Psychology

Abstract

This paper describes the emergence of critical psychology as a kind of ‘revolution in psychology’, but notes that this kind of revolution is rather limited if it is just a revolution in thinking. To make critical psychology really revolutionary we need to connect with practice. I describe some of the key arguments made by critical psychologists before going on to describe the work of the campaigning group ‘Psychology Politics Resistance’. I review the specific cultural-economic conditions that facilitated and hindered the development of the group, explore the assumptions it made about what was possible and the rationale for the name, drawing out theoretical and practical lessons. I end the paper with reflections on consequences for the way we think about the figure of the ‘critical psychologist’ and the way in which we can engage in critical psychology in such a way as to connect with broader political movements outside the discipline.

 

 

Janel Gauthier
Laval University, Québec – Canada
Title: Politics Connecting with Virtue, Ethics and Human Rights

Abstract

Politics has tremendous influence on how we behave ethically, how we become ethical beings, and how we define virtue. The connections among these four components frequently go unacknowledged. The objective of this chapter is to explore how politics influences the interpretation of what is virtuous, what is ethical, and even what is considered to be the rights of being human. The role of politics, both positive and detrimental, is overwhelming and largely unspoken. A few definitions will guide our journey. Then follows a very brief history of the profound influence politics has had on our ethical values, standards and decision making. We move on to today’s world of diversity, instant communication, and high tech weapons of death. There is inherent conflict between endorsing universal standards and guidelines and protecting culture-specific identities and differences.

 

 

Janice Perlman
Mega-Cities Project – USA
Title: The Changing Story of Life in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro,  1968-2008

 

John Cacioppo
University of Chicago – USA
Title: Social Isolation

Abstract
Social species, from drosophilia melanogaster to homo sapiens, fare poorly when socially isolated. Humans, an irrepressibly meaning-making species, are affected in normal circumstances more by perceived social isolation than by objective social isolation. Research indicates that perceived social isolation (i.e., loneliness) is a risk factor for, and may contribute to, poor health and well-being, less salubrious sleep, poorer overall cognitive performance, faster cognitive decline, poorer executive functioning, altered gene expression, and contagion effects that threaten social cohesion. Together, these effects contribute to the association between social isolation and mortality in humans.

 

 

José María Peiró
IAAP & Universitat De València – España
Title: El Clima de Estres en el Trabajo: Principales Facetas, Procesos de Emergência y Estratégias de Afrontamiento Individuales y Colectivas.

Abstract

Stress is a relevant phenomenon at work with often negative impact for people and organizations. Its study has been approached traditionally from an individual perspective. However recent research has drawn the attention to its collective dimension. The present paper presents a new approach to the study of work stress  from a multi- and cross-level approach and draws from it the main implications for the study of stress components: stressors, primary and secondary appraisal, affects and emotions, coping and effects. The emerging processes are analyzed and empirical evidence is presented. Consensus in appraisal or climate strength is also considered and its role in the effects of climate on outcomes reviewed. Those effects are related to some climate of stress facets. Finally, the implications of this approach for the design of more human, healthy and productive organizational climtes are highlighted

 

 

Judith Gibbons - SIP Award 2011

Saint Louis University - EUA

Intercountry adoption: Child rescue or baby selling?

Abstract

Intercountry adoption (ICA) is controversial. The number of children adopted across borders peaked in 2004 and has been declining since, as a result of documented fraud, especially in rescue operations, and the more widespread implementation of the “Hague Convention,” the international agreement that governs ICA. Proponents point to the enormous physical, emotional, and cognitive gains made by adopted children. Opponents claim that the practice spawns a market in babies, fomenting child theft, sales, and trafficking.  Research reveals the deleterious effects of poor care in institutions, as well as the significant recovery of adopted children, especially for those adopted before one year of age. During adolescence visibly different adoptees may face racism; exploration of their ethnic identity and original culture is associated with greater well-being. ICA is unlikely to be an optimal placement for the majority of children out of parental care, but benefits some children internationally.  

 

 

Manuela Romo
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid – España
Title: Diversidad e Integración: retos para una educación creativa

Abstract
The aimofthis lectureis to definethe relevanceofan educationfor creativityto the challengesof theinformation society, the complex and global society thatmustdeal with diversity. Education mustmeet this challengefromkindergartento college. We beginwithan approach to thenature of creativityby establishingthe connection betweengreatworksthat have contributed to the culture developmentand creativityof everyday life. We will look at disagreements betweencreativityand educationand we will identify barriersto creativitythat has limitedits expression anddevelopmentand finally we will definethe ways that itshould be presentin schooland college.First, as a teaching tool, incorporating it intothe teaching methodsand secondlyas an educational goal: becomemore creativepeoplepreparedto meetthe challengesof today's society.

 

 

Maria Regina Maluf
Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo – Brasil
Title: La diversidad como reto para una educación creativa

Abstract
The Science of Reading was formed in the last 30, incorporates contributions from Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience and has much to say about how to teach reading. Some children quickly learn in school while others cannot learn in spite of years of schooling. Decoding, spelling, fluency and comprehension are challenges that learners face. What these skills have to do with teaching methods, the writing system, or something inherent to the child? Debates about these issues occupied much of the twentieth century and are still present in our media. Although no definitive answer, there is evidence to show what helps and what does not help, and why. The Science of Reading is allowing us to understand how the human brain works when exposed to reading and emphasizes the important role of phonics instruction in the learning process.

 

 

Mary A. Moreno
University of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
Title: Hacia un modelo neurocognitivo para la evaluación psicológica: Implicaciones para el desarrollo de intervenciones en poblaciones escolares

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation model based on neurocognitive models that explain the dynamics of the processes that underlie the acquisition of academic skills and include parameters for intervention. The use of these models for cognitive modification is presented, which in case of school populations, give way to the development of psychoeducational interventions. The paper focuses on specific learning disabilities (SLD), given the high prevalence of this diagnosis in school settings. The traditional models of SLD's identification are described, as well as their advantages and challenges in terms of their effectiveness. Based on these matters, we present an alternative model in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional models. The theoretical framework of the model is included, as well as its components description and their use for identification and intervention with children with SLD.

 

 

Merry Bullock
American Psychological -Association - EUA
Title: Can we really internationalize psychology? Substance, methods and process.

Abstract

Although psychology is a discipline has been recognized internationally from its very beginnings, the history of psychology is not the history of international development.
Against this background, this paper addresses three issues: (1) what is internationalization? (2) What does internationalization mean for psychology?; and (3) how might thinking about internationalization affect psychology education, research, and application? Examples are provided of internationalization at the organizational level, internationalization as representation, internationalization in the content of psychology, and internationalization as a process of development. The role of global and local analysis is considered, and barriers to internationalization are discussed. The paper ends with a discussion of whether psychology can be internationalized and how this might occur.

 

 

Michel Sabourin
IUPsys & University of Montreal – Canada
Title: Querulous paranoia and the vexatious litigant: The contributions of legal and clinical psychology

Abstract

Querulous paranoia involves the relentless pursuit of an individual in legal action at all costs, over real or imagined injustices.  It was was once of considerable clinical and academic interest in psychiatry.  Although presently given professionally less attention, it is flourishing in the courts and in modern complaints organizations, where vexatious litigation behaviours that define the querulous are clearly on the rise. This presentation will describe the main characteristics of the querulous, both from a communication and a behavioral perspective, in and out of court, and then examine the aetiological, phenomenological and nosological issues surrounding querulousness.  Finally, attempts to identify solutions or ways to manage this problem will be considered, in the context of trying to find ways of promoting early identification and intervention  for the purpose of preventing the escalation of the problem and of its costly impact on the judicial system.

 

 

Norma Contini
Fac. Psic., Universidad Nacional de Tucumán – Argentina
Title: La Evaluación Psicológica en Debate. Cuestionamientos desde la Psicologia Transcultural

Abstract

Psychological Assessment and Diagnosis are core tasks in the Psychologist’s practice and they have led to the use of tests and diagnostic categories. A critical analysis of such practices will be carried out on the basis of contributions by Cross Cultural Psychology; the culture-behaviour relation and the notions of universalism and relativism will be analysed. The methods used, the theories that back them up and the classifying systems of diagnosis will be referred to. The aim is to consider how the quality of diagnosis is affected by the use of tools which originate in a cultural context different from the ones they will be applied to and by the use of supposedly universal categories of diagnosis. Due to the constant need to assess subjects from different cultural backgrounds, this topic gains particular relevance: it is important not to mistake cultural differences for deviation or psychopathology in order to get a more reliable diagnosis which will enable more effective interventions.

 

 

Patricia Greenfield

University of California and IACCP - EUA
Title: Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development

 

Reynaldo Alarcón
Universidad Ricardo Palma – Perú
Title: Construcción y Validación de una Escala para Medir el Optimismo

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure optimism, conceptualized as a construction of positive representations of the future, connected with the expectation  about  the actions or events to occur. Attributive  Optimism  Scale (AOS), so we call the test, consists  of 10 ítems, put on a Likert scale of five answer choices . Was administered to a sample of 822participants, men  and  women. The reliability of the instrument is accredited by significant values of items-Scale, inter-ítems, and Alpha internal consistency coefficients of moderate magnitude. Construct validity was determined   by exploratory factor analysis, yielding a two factor structure: optimism and pessimism. Findings  are discussed.

 

 

Rolando Diaz-Loving
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico – Mexico
Title: Aportaciones de la etnopsicología al estudio de la personalidad

 

Sharon Shavitt
University of Illinois – USA
Title: Diversity of Power Goals Across Cultures

Abstract

Cultures nurture different views about what is desirable and meaningful to do with power. Our findings highlight culturally distinct conceptualizations of power and link them to cultural orientations and groups. These findings demonstrate that cultural orientations or groups high in vertical individualism tend to hold a view of power as instrumental for advancing one’s personal status, as well as mindsets and interpretive tendencies that support these power goals. In contrast, cultural orientations or groups high in horizontal collectivism tend to hold a view of power as instrumental for benefiting and positively influencing others, as well as mindsets and interpretive tendencies that support these power goals. These cultural differences have implications for brand preferences, the processing of marketing messages, responses to service failures that implicate power, and the content of advertisements.

 

 

Susan Pick - SIP Award 2011
Ashoka – Mexico
Title: Lactancia materna y empoderamiento: habilidades para la vida y factores psicosociales de un programa nacional en Mexico

Abstract

The implementation in Mexico of a program based on personal agency and empowerment intrinsic reveals the deconstruction and construction process for people to become true agents of change since the acquisition of knowledge and attitudes basic to the development of new policies for the promotion exclusive breastfeeding for six months. The development of life skills such as self-awareness, empathy, expression and emotion management, assertive communication, critical thinking and decision making, the acquisition of knowledge and standardized information regarding the practice of breastfeeding, and reducing psychosocial barriers as grief, fear, prejudices, resentments and guilt are key to changing attitudes and behavior in both authorities and health workers, as in pregnant and breastfeeding women and their families. This has improved the quality of medical care and independent decision making, informed and responsible women.